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According to another ProVision optometrist and ProVision Professional Services Committee member, Janine Hobson, “we haven’t perhaps taught enough prevention, and I think, instead of being proactive, we are reactive. The issue here is, once you are reactive, it is much more difficult to solve a problem, whereas if you are proactive, you can go about preventing eye diseases such as this.”
We asked Janine, about this leading cause of blindness and how to prevent it.
The macula is part of the retina at the back of the eye. It is only about 5mm across but is responsible for all of our central vision, and for sharp, clear, straight-ahead vision, most of our colour vision and the fine detail of what we see. The macula has a very high concentration of photoreceptor cells that detect light and send signals to the brain, which interprets them as images. The rest of the retina processes our peripheral vision.
Macular disease causes loss of central vision.
We don’t know the cause of age-related macular degeneration, but we do know that there are certain risk factors for the development of age-related macular degeneration. Research indicates it may be related to a combination of heredity and environmental factors, including smoking and diet.
People with dry macular degeneration don’t have these abnormal or fragile blood vessels yet, but they are at an increased risk for developing the vessels at some point.
It is possible to develop it in only one eye. However, as the disease progresses both eyes may become affected. If an individual has macular degeneration in one eye, he or she is more likely to develop it in the other eye than someone who does not.
The biggest issue with macular degeneration is that it generally doesn’t have symptoms in the early stages for most people, especially, if the problem in the back of their eye is their non-dominant eye. Your non-dominant eye is like your non-dominant hand, if you are right-handed, that’s your dominant hand. If you hurt your left hand it never affects you as much, because everything you do is right-handed. This is similar to what happens in your vision. If the cells start to die in the back of the eye, which is what causes the problem, then you get little bits of the retina missing, and when that retina starts to miss, if it is not missing in the dominant eye then patients don’t actually notice it.
This is the reason it is really important for patients, especially once over 65, but definitely once they are over 50, to visit an optometrist, so that we can find these defects early, and before they notice that they have a problem, because by this time, any loss of vision could be irreversible.
The biggest issue is, if patients get macular in their better or more dominant eye, that loss of independence for older people is what creates huge problems. That is the issue that I always try to emphasise. That regular eye examinations will help keep you independent, keep you living at home, keep you doing what you want to do, and likely stop you having to lose your driver’s license.
Factors that may increase your risk of macular degeneration include:
Please talk to your Hampton Eyecare optometrist about any of these factors above.
50% of patients that have macula also have a family member that has been affected with macula degeneration.
You can take care of your vision and the progression of macular degeneration day-to-day in your home and keep a close watch on any changes. To discover any changes to your vision as early as possible, your optometrist will probably have you test your own vision on a regular schedule using a small, hand-held Amsler grid.
You should monitor your vision at home, and it’s important to do that one eye at a time, because if one eye develops wet macular degeneration, it might not be so noticeable as the other eye is compensating.
Some optometrists administer Amsler grids to at-risk patients. If changes are noticed, patients are encouraged to advise their optometrist immediately.
That is the problem, there are not really any early especially if the eye is involved.
Not until the eye is covered one day will the patient notice the loss of central vision and definitions.
Some people with the intermediate stage may notice changes to their central vision. Currently there is no treatment available for the early and intermediate stages. Research is being conducted to develop treatments.
Most important is the use of the advanced technology of the retinal imaging such as the photography and especially the newer wide field cameras, as this will highlight any changes quickly.
And of course, the OCT that really defines any central macula changes taking place. Optometrists can quickly compare to previous images or if it is a new diagnosis, can refer to the ophthalmologist for treatment immediately.
Many people don’t lose vision, especially if they maintain a healthy lifestyle. It’s been shown that people who eat a healthy diet, don’t smoke, and exercise can decrease their risk of vision loss.
All optometrists check eye health at every comprehensive examination, looking for the three most common eye diseases cataracts, glaucoma and macular degeneration as well as other less common problems.
There is currently no treatment for dry macular degeneration but treatments are available for wet macular degeneration that are aimed at maintaining the vision for as long as possible.
For the wet form of the disease, some common treatments that can help control the abnormal blood vessel growth and bleeding in the macula include injections, laser surgery, and photodynamic therapy. Some eye doctors recommend vitamin supplements to reduce the progression of dry macular degeneration – particularly zinc, Vitamins C, E and beta carotene.
For long term healthy eyesight, it is vital to have a comprehensive eye exam every 2-3 years. If over 65 years of age, annual exams are recommended. If there are other risk factors, more regular checks may be required and your optometrist will advise you on how often you should attend. ‘Awareness of macular disease’, study conducted by YouGov Galaxy, commissioned by Macular Disease Foundation Australia – read more via below link.
Many people in our community are at risk of developing macular disease but just don’t know it.